Marcus Rashford and Harry Maguire both had chances for United, who suffered their first set-back of the summer following three wins and a draw on their tour of Thailand and Australia.
Ten Hag gave a hint about his starting XI for the Premier League opener against Brighton next week by picking a strong side against Atletico which included Maguire, Rashford, Bruno Fernandes and Anthony Martial.
Jadon Sancho would have also started after making the trip to Oslo but missed out after falling ill overnight.
Eriksen impressed after coming on as a second-half substitute but the Denmark midfielder could not find a way to break down a stubborn Atletico defence which held firm despite plenty of pressure from Ten Hag’s side.
Rashford and Maguire both had good chances to score but it was Joao Felix who was clinical with his opportunity late on when he fired low past De Gea.
Fred, booked in the first half, was then sent off for picking up a second yellow card following a challenge on Alvaro Morata.
Ten Hag has one more chance to run the rule over his players ahead of the new season with a friendly against Rayo Vallecano at Old Trafford on Sunday.
The 37-year-old is keen to leave the club this summer although so far United have been firm in their stance that he is not available for transfer.
The Portugal striker has a year left on his contract, plus the option of another season, and has been linked with moves to Atletico Madrid, Chelsea, and Bayern Munich.
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